Tuesday, September 20, 2016

Activity trackers my undermine weight loss efforts

Activity Trackers May Undermine Weight Loss Efforts. http://tiny.iavian.net/cfjp

Sunday, September 18, 2016

We’re All Guinea Pigs in a Failed Decades-Long Diet Experiment | VICE | United States

We’re All Guinea Pigs in a Failed Decades-Long Diet Experiment | VICE | United States: Overseas, national health authorities followed America's lead on fat. The results have been similarly grim. Earlier this year, a UK nonprofit called the National Obesity Forum (NOF) published a blistering condemnation of its government's diet and nutrition policies.

In its report, the NOF argues that advice to cut back on fat and cholesterol is "the root cause" of Britain's skyrocketing rates of obesity and diabetes. Speaking shortly after the report's publication, Aseem Malhotra, a British cardiologist who consulted on the NOF report, said, "The change in dietary advice to promote low-fat foods is perhaps the biggest mistake in modern medical history.

Along with ripping its government's "failed policies," the NOF report called for a "complete overhaul of dietary advice and public health messaging."

In a recent editorial appearing in the British Journal of Sports Medicine, researcher Zoe Harcombe from the University of the West of Scotland explains that obesity rates among British men and women rose from 2.7 percent in 1972 to 23 percent and 26 percent, respectively, by 1999.

"There are only three macronutrients," Harcombe told VICE, "protein, fat, and carbohydrates." Nearly everything you eat or drink contains one or more of these. And if you followed the government's advice to eat less fat, it's inevitable that your carb consumption would shoot up, she said. That's just what happened at a population level during the 1980s and 90s.

50 Years Ago, Sugar Industry Quietly Paid Scientists To Point Blame At Fat : The Two-Way : NPR

50 Years Ago, Sugar Industry Quietly Paid Scientists To Point Blame At Fat : The Two-Way : NPR:



In the 1960s, the sugar industry funded research that downplayed the risks of sugar and highlighted the hazards of fat, according to a newly published article in JAMA Internal Medicine.

The article draws on internal documents to show that an industry group called the Sugar Research Foundation wanted to "refute" concerns about sugar's possible role in heart disease. The SRF then sponsored research by Harvard scientists that did just that. The result was published in the New England Journal of Medicine in 1967, with no disclosure of the sugar industry funding.



The sugar-funded project in question was a literature review, examining a variety of studies and experiments. It suggested there were major problems with all the studies that implicated sugar, and concluded that cutting fat out of American diets was the best way to address coronary heart disease.



 The authors of the new article say that for the past five decades, the sugar industry has been attempting to influence the scientific debate over the relative risks of sugar and fat.

"It was a very smart thing the sugar industry did, because review papers, especially if you get them published in a very prominent journal, tend to shape the overall scientific discussion," co-author Stanton Glantz told The New York Times.

Thursday, September 15, 2016

Aerobic exercise training increases brain volume in aging humans. - PubMed - NCBI

Aerobic exercise training increases brain volume in aging humans. - PubMed - NCBI: Significant increases in brain volume, in both gray and white matter regions, were found as a function of fitness training for the older adults who participated in the aerobic fitness training but not for the older adults who participated in the stretching and toning (nonaerobic) control group. As predicted, no significant changes in either gray or white matter volume were detected for our younger participants.

CONCLUSIONS:
These results suggest that cardiovascular fitness is associated with the sparing of brain tissue in aging humans. Furthermore, these results suggest a strong biological basis for the role of aerobic fitness in maintaining and enhancing central nervous system health and cognitive functioning in older adults.

Benefits of regular aerobic exercise for executive functioning in healthy populations. - PubMed - NCBI

Benefits of regular aerobic exercise for executive functioning in healthy populations. - PubMed - NCBI: Research suggests that regular aerobic exercise has the potential to improve executive functioning, even in healthy populations. The purpose of this review is to elucidate which components of executive functioning benefit from such exercise in healthy populations. In light of the developmental time course of executive functions, we consider separately children, young adults, and older adults. Data to date from studies of aging provide strong evidence of exercise-linked benefits related to task switching, selective attention, inhibition of prepotent responses, and working memory capacity; furthermore, cross-sectional fitness data suggest that working memory updating could potentially benefit as well. In young adults, working memory updating is the main executive function shown to benefit from regular exercise, but cross-sectional data further suggest that task-switching and post error performance may also benefit. In children, working memory capacity has been shown to benefit, and cross-sectional data suggest potential benefits for selective attention and inhibitory control. Although more research investigating exercise-related benefits for specific components of executive functioning is clearly needed in young adults and children, when considered across the age groups, ample evidence indicates that regular engagement in aerobic exercise can provide a simple means for healthy people to optimize a range of executive functions.

Impact of aerobic exercise training on cognitive functions and affect associated to the COMT polymorphism in young adults

Impact of aerobic exercise training on cognitive functions and affect associated to the COMT polymorphism in young adults: Physical fitness can serve as a means to enhance cognitive functioning by modulating particular aspects of brain functioning. However, mechanisms underlying this modulating effect remain widely unresolved. To examine the impact and to clarify the mechanisms of physical fitness training in a young and healthy population, it was investigated whether an increase in fitness would result in improvements in executive control processes and positive and negative affect. Moreover, genotype of the Val158Met polymorphism in catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) as an index of relative central dopamine bioavailability was determined to elucidate dopamine tuning efficiency and its association with performance in the applied cognitive tasks. Seventy-five individuals participated and underwent an incremental fitness test to assess physical fitness. An exercising group subsequently engaged in a 17�weeks running training consisting of three running sessions at moderate to high, individually adjusted intensities. Associated with increased fitness improved cognitive flexibility and cognitive control were observed, whereas working memory remained unaffected. In runners, Val/Val participants improved cognitive performance to a greater extent compared to individuals carrying a Met allele. From the present results it is concluded that an increase in physical fitness provides a means to improve cognitive functioning via dopaminergic modulation.

Research highlights

► Increased physical fitness is associated with improved cognitive functions. ► Increased physical fitness is accompanied by a gain in positive affect. ► The beneficial effect of increased physical fitness seems to be mediated by dopaminergic modulation.

The sugar conspiracy | Ian Leslie | Society | The Guardian

The sugar conspiracy | Ian Leslie | Society | The Guardian:



Although Keys had shown a correlation between heart disease and saturated fat, he had not excluded the possibility that heart disease was being caused by something else. Years later, the Seven Countries study’s lead Italian researcher, Alessandro Menotti, went back to the data, and found that the food that correlated most closely with deaths from heart disease was not saturated fat, but sugar.

Tuesday, September 13, 2016

The Science of Smart: A Surprising Way To Improve Executive Function - Secret Life of Scientists and Engineers — Secret Life of Scientists and Engineers | PBS

The Science of Smart: A Surprising Way To Improve Executive Function - Secret Life of Scientists and Engineers — Secret Life of Scientists and Engineers | PBS:



 There is one surprising but well-supported way to improve executive function in both children and adults, however: aerobic exercise. A just-published review of the relevant research, appearing in the journal Psychonomic Bulletin and Review, concludes that “ample evidence indicates that regular engagement in aerobic exercise can provide a simple means for healthy people to optimize a range of executive functions.”

NY Times. How the Sugar Industry Shifted Blame to Fat

NY Times. How the Sugar Industry Shifted Blame to Fat
The sugar industry paid scientists in the 1960s to play down the link between sugar and heart disease and promote saturated fat as the culprit instead, newly released historical documents show.
The internal sugar industry documents, recently discovered by a researcher at the University of California, San Francisco, and published Monday in JAMA Internal Medicine, suggest that five decades of research into the role of nutrition and heart disease, including many of today’s dietary recommendations, may have been largely shaped by the sugar industry.
“They were able to derail the discussion about sugar for decades,” said Stanton Glantz, a professor of medicine at U.C.S.F. and an author of the JAMA paper.
The documents show that a trade group called the Sugar Research Foundation, known today as the Sugar Association, paid three Harvard scientists the equivalent of about $50,000 in today’s dollars to publish a 1967 review of research on sugar, fat and heart disease. The studies used in the review were handpicked by the sugar group, and the article, which was published in the prestigious New England Journal of Medicine, minimized the link between sugar and heart health and cast aspersions on the role of saturated fat.
Even though the influence-peddling revealed in the documents dates back nearly 50 years, more recent reports show that the food industry has continued to influence nutrition science.
Last year, an article in The New York Times revealed that Coca-Cola, the world’s largest producer of sugary beverages, had provided millions of dollars in funding to researchers who sought to play down the link between sugary drinks and obesity. In June, The Associated Press reported that candy makers were funding studies that claimed that children who eat candy tend to weigh less than those who do not.
The Harvard scientists and the sugar executives with whom they collaborated are no longer alive. One of the scientists who was paid by the sugar industry was D. Mark Hegsted, who went on to become the head of nutrition at the United States Department of Agriculture, where in 1977 he helped draft the forerunner to the federal government’s dietary guidelines. Another was Dr. Fredrick J. Stare, the chairman of Harvard’s nutrition department.

Saturday, September 10, 2016

Reversing impaired kidney function in diabetics may be possible with ketogenic diet

 Reversing impaired kidney function in diabetics may be possible with the ketogenic diet. The researchers at Mount Sinai Medical School found that the ketogenic diet, a style of eating based on high-fat and low-carbohydrate intake, may be beneficial in reversing kidney function. The researchers studied mice that were genetically predisposed to have type 1 or type 2 diabetes. The mice went on to develop diabetic kidney damage. Half of the mice were put on the ketogenic diet and the other half served as controls. After eight weeks, molecular indicators of kidney damage were reversed in the mice on the ketogenic diet, along with kidney pathology in mice with type 2 diabetes. http://www.belmarrahealth.com/reversing-impaired-kidney-function-diabetics-may-possible-ketogenic-diet/

Reversing impaired kidney function in diabetics may be possible with ketogenic diet

 Reversing impaired kidney function in diabetics may be possible with the ketogenic diet. The researchers at Mount Sinai Medical School found that the ketogenic diet, a style of eating based on high-fat and low-carbohydrate intake, may be beneficial in reversing kidney function. The researchers studied mice that were genetically predisposed to have type 1 or type 2 diabetes. The mice went on to develop diabetic kidney damage. Half of the mice were put on the ketogenic diet and the other half served as controls. After eight weeks, molecular indicators of kidney damage were reversed in the mice on the ketogenic diet, along with kidney pathology in mice with type 2 diabetes. http://www.belmarrahealth.com/reversing-impaired-kidney-function-diabetics-may-possible-ketogenic-diet/

Tuesday, August 30, 2016

PLOS ONE: The Ketogenic Diet and Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy Prolong Survival in Mice with Systemic Metastatic Cancer

PLOS ONE: The Ketogenic Diet and Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy Prolong Survival in Mice with Systemic Metastatic Cancer:



Ketogenic Diet alone significantly decreased blood glucose, slowed tumor growth, and increased mean survival time by 56.7% in mice with systemic metastatic cancer.

PLOS ONE: The Ketogenic Diet and Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy Prolong Survival in Mice with Systemic Metastatic Cancer

PLOS ONE: The Ketogenic Diet and Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy Prolong Survival in Mice with Systemic Metastatic Cancer:



Ketogenic Diet alone significantly decreased blood glucose, slowed tumor growth, and increased mean survival time by 56.7% in mice with systemic metastatic cancer.

Sunday, August 14, 2016

High Carbohydrate Intake Worse than High Fat for Blood Lipids

High Carbohydrate Intake Worse than High Fat for Blood Lipids:

Recent data presented at the World Heart Federation’s World Congress of Cardiology & Cardiovascular Health 2016 (WCC 2016) in Mexico City last month may radically change our perspective on how carbohydrates and different types of fats affect blood cholesterol and other lipid biomarkers. The presentation was based on data from the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiological (PURE) study. The data have not been published yet, and the results are only available in an abstract

[...]

In the above study, the only benefit of a high carbohydrate diet was a lowering of TC and LDL-C. However, the effect on other lipid biomarkers such as HDL-C, TG, and ApoB/ApoA ratio may be harmful.

A diet rich in SFAs raised TC and LDL-C but lowered TG while a diet rich in MUFAs improved all lipid biomarkers. A diet high in PUFAs had a mixed effect on lipid biomarkers.

The study suggests that placing carbohydrates at the bottom of the food pyramid based on their effect on blood cholesterol was a mistake. In fact, the data show that replacing dietary carbohydrates with different types of fat may improve lipid profile.

In an interview on Medscape, Dr. Mahshid Dehghan, the principal author of the abstract said (3):

To summarize our findings, the most adverse effect on blood lipids is from carbohydrates; the most benefit is from consumption of monounsaturated fatty acids; and the effect of saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids are mixed. I believe this is a big message that we can give because we are confusing people with a low-fat diet and all the complications of total fat consumption, and WHO and AHA all suggest 55% to 60% of energy from carbohydrates.

Today, most experts agree that diets high in SFAs or refined carbohydrates are not be recommended for the prevention of heart disease. However, it appears that carbohydrates are likely to cause a greater metabolic damage than SFAs in the rapidly growing population of people with metabolic abnormalities associated with obesity and insulin resistance.

I assume we all agree that partially hydrogenated fats (trans-fats) should be avoided. However, the singular focus on reducing the intake of SFAs, and dietary fats in general, may have been counterproductive and promoted the rapidly growing popularity of refined carbohydrates. The recent nutritional data from the PURE study clearly suggest that it is time to shift our focus away from reducing fat in our diet toward reduced consumption of carbohydrates.

Saturday, June 11, 2016

Strong statin-diabetes link seen in large study -- ScienceDaily

Strong statin-diabetes link seen in large study -- ScienceDaily:



Veterans Affairs Research Communications
Summary:
In a study of nearly 26,000 beneficiaries of Tricare, the military health system, those taking statin drugs to control their cholesterol were 87 percent more likely to develop diabetes. The research confirms past findings on the link between the widely prescribed drugs and diabetes risk. But it is among the first to show the connection in a relatively healthy group of people. The study included only people who at baseline were free of heart disease, diabetes, and other severe chronic disease.

Contradictions and Cognitive Dissonance: The (Kevin) Hall Effect - The Blog of Michael R. Eades, M.D.

Contradictions and Cognitive Dissonance: The (Kevin) Hall Effect - The Blog of Michael R. Eades, M.D.:



Have you seen the guy on the smart phone video popping up all over the internet saying he has disproven the carbohydrate-insulin hypothesis of obesity? His name is Kevin Hall and he must be experiencing some real cognitive dissonance. Or I certainly am, given the sharp contrast between what his study results actually show and what he’s saying they show on the video. As we all know, cognitive dissonance occurs when we try to hold two opposing views in our mind at the same time, when we experience a disconnect between what we believe and what reality serves us up. And Hall certainly appears to have a disconnect.

The sugar conspiracy | Ian Leslie | The Guardian

The sugar conspiracy | Ian Leslie | Society | The Guardian:



The sugar conspiracy
In 1972, a British scientist sounded the alarm that sugar – and not fat – was the greatest danger to our health. But his findings were ridiculed and his reputation ruined. How did the world’s top nutrition scientists get it so wrong for so long?

Why the average ancient Roman worker was dead by 30 - The Local

Romans ate bread, had terrible health and weak bones.



Why the average ancient Roman worker was dead by 30 - The Local:



Indeed, historical evidence and tooth enamel analysis suggest that the lower echelons of Roman society subsisted on an extremely limited diet of poor quality, often rotting grains and stale bread. �

Stopping or reducing dietary fiber intake reduces constipation and its associated symptoms

Stopping or reducing dietary fiber intake reduces constipation and its associated symptoms:



CONCLUSION: Idiopathic constipation and its associated symptoms can be effectively reduced by stopping or even lowering the intake of dietary fiber.

Monday, May 23, 2016

Britain’s diabetes crisis blamed on low-fat diet craze |


Leading doctors and scientists said popular 'low fat' and 'proven to lower cholesterol' messages have had a disastrous impact on public health. 
The National Obesity Forum said it was time to 'bring back the fat' with 'real food', like steak, eggs, butter and full-fat milk.
They were essential for maintaining health and preventing diseases which cost the NHS tens of billions of pounds to treat. 

Saturday, May 21, 2016

Strong statin-diabetes link seen in large study -- ScienceDaily

Strong statin-diabetes link seen in large study -- ScienceDaily:

In a database study of nearly 26,000 beneficiaries of Tricare, the military health system, those taking statin drugs to control their cholesterol were 87 percent more likely to develop diabetes.

The study, reported online April 28, 2015, in the Journal of General Internal Medicine, confirms past findings on the link between the widely prescribed drugs and diabetes risk. But it is among the first to show the connection in a relatively healthy group of people. The study included only people who at baseline were free of heart disease, diabetes, and other severe chronic disease.

"In our study, statin use was associated with a significantly higher risk of new-onset diabetes, even in a very healthy population," says lead author Dr. Ishak Mansi. "The risk of diabetes with statins has been known, but up until now it was thought that this might be due to the fact that people who were prescribed statins had greater medical risks to begin with."

Mansi is a physician-researcher with the VA North Texas Health System and the University of Texas Southwestern in Dallas.

In the study, statin use was also associated with a "very high risk of diabetes complications," says Mansi. "This was never shown before." Among 3,351 pairs of similar patients--part of the overall study group--those patients on statins were 250 percent more likely than their non-statin-using counterparts to develop diabetes with complications.

Statin users were also 14 percent more likely to become overweight or obese after being on the drugs.

Heart attacks could be caused by too LITTLE salt new study shows | Daily Mail Online

Heart attacks could be caused by too LITTLE salt new study shows | Daily Mail Online:



Their findings showed that regardless of whether people have high blood pressure, low-salt intake is linked to a greater incidence of heart attacks, stroke, and deaths compared to average intake.

Saturday, May 14, 2016

Gluten-free diet could damage health of people without coeliac disease, expert claims

Gluten-free diet could damage health of people without coeliac disease, expert claims. http://tiny.iavian.net/a9vp

But writing in the Journal of Pediatrics, Dr Norelle Reilly, of Columbia University Medical Centre,  in New York, warned that gluten-free alternatives were often loaded with fat and sugar and lacked nutrients.

“There is no evidence that processed gluten free foods are healthier nor have there been proven health or nutritional benefits of a gluten free diet. There are no data to support the theory of intrinsically toxic properties of gluten in otherwise healthy adults and children.

“Gluten free packaged foods frequently contain a greater density of fat and sugar than their gluten-containing counterparts.

“Obesity, overweight and new-onset insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome have been identified after initiation of a gluten-free diet.

“It also may lead to deficiencies in B vitamins, folate, and iron, given a lack of nutrient fortification of many gluten-free products.”

Sunday, May 08, 2016

Children with ADHD may benefit from following healthy behaviors, new study suggests | EurekAlert! Science News

Children with ADHD may benefit from following healthy behaviors, new study suggests | EurekAlert! Science News:



Recommendations include getting no more than 1 to 2 hours of total screen time daily; getting at least 1 hour of physical activity daily; limiting consumption of sugar sweetened beverages; getting 9 to 11 hours of sleep per night; and consuming 7 to 10 cups of water daily, depending on age. Holton and Nigg created a lifestyle index to summarize the total number of healthy lifestyle behaviors adhered to by 184 children with ADHD as compared to a control group of 104 non-ADHD youth.



So kids with ADD don't have healthy behaviors, but I don't know if that necessarily means that the healthy behaviors improve ADD symptoms. 

Schizophrenia Not One Disease, New Genetic Evidence Shows

Schizophrenia Not One Disease, New Genetic Evidence Shows: Fifteen of the 48 patients (31.25%) carried rare or novel variants in one or more of the four genes, and these subgroups of patients had significantly different symptoms.

One gene is PTPRG (receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase gamma), which encodes a protein that allows nerve cells to connect as they form nerve networks. Patients with rare variants in this gene experienced earlier onset of relatively severe psychosis and had a history of learning disabilities. Despite high intelligence in some, they showed cognitive deficits in working memory, the researchers say.

Another influential gene is SLC39A13 (zinc transporter family 39 member 13). Patients with mutations in this gene also experienced early onset of schizophrenia, but they showed globally disrupted cognition and the most severe psychopathology, including negative symptoms and severe suicide attempts. They had the lowest intelligence and the least educational attainment, consistent with a developmental disorder, the researchers report.

Patients with variants in a third influential gene, ARMS/KIDINS220 (ankyrin repeat-rich membrane-spanning protein), showed early promise, and many attended college. They then experienced cognitive decline, consistent with a degenerative process.

Patients with variants in a fourth influential gene, TGM5 (transglutaminase 5), had less severe symptoms but often experienced attention-deficit disorder during childhood, and processing speed was slow in these patients.

Tuesday, May 03, 2016

New research reveals sun benefits that AREN'T linked to vitamin D | Daily Mail Online

New research reveals sun benefits that AREN'T linked to vitamin D | Daily Mail Online:



Even taking skin-cancer risk into account, scientists say the sun is healthy Research indicates it protects us against a wide range of lethal conditions. Specifically, sun exposure prompts our bodies to produce nitric oxide that helps defend our cardiovascular system

Sunday, May 01, 2016

The sugar conspiracy | Ian Leslie | Society | The Guardian

The sugar conspiracy | Ian Leslie | Society | The Guardian:

In 1972, a British scientist sounded the alarm that sugar – and not fat – was the greatest danger to our health. But his findings were ridiculed and his reputation ruined. How did the world’s top nutrition scientists get it so wrong for so long?

White bread, bagels and corn flakes 'increase the risk of lung cancer by 49%' | Daily Mail Online

White bread, bagels and corn flakes 'increase the risk of lung cancer by 49%' | Daily Mail Online: Are CARBS the new cigarettes? White bread, bagels and rice 'increase the risk of lung cancer by 49%', experts warn
Foods with high glycemic index are linked to lung cancer, scientists found
Such foods include white bread, bagels, corn flakes and puffed rice
Study found a 49% higher risk of lung cancer in people with high GI diets  Scientists recommends people cut high GI foods out of their diet

Catalyst: Ancient Teeth - ABC TV Science

Catalyst: Ancient Teeth - ABC TV Science: Scientists at the University of Adelaide have found this by analysing hundreds of skeletons dating back thousands of years. Our teeth went bad when farming began, 10,000 years ago.