ScienceDirect - Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases : Carbohydrate restriction favorably alters lipoprotein metabolism in Emirati subjects classified with the metabolic syndrome
Carbohydrate restriction favorably alters lipoprotein metabolism in Emirati subjects classified with the metabolic syndrome
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T. Al-Sarraja, H. Saadic, J.S. Volekb and M.L. Fernandeza, Corresponding Author Contact Information
aDepartment of Nutritional Sciences, University of Connecticut, 3624 Horsebarn Road Ext, U 4017, Storrs, CT 06269, USA
bDepartment of Internal Medicine, United Arab Emirate University, Al-Ain, United Arab Emirates
cDepartment of Kinesiology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269, USA
Received 10 March 2009;
revised 4 June 2009;
accepted 8 June 2009.
Available online 12 September 2009.
Background and aims
Carbohydrate restriction (CR) has been shown to improve dyslipidemias associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS). We evaluated the effects of CR on lipoprotein subfractions and apolipoproteins in Emirati adults classified with the MetS.
Methods and results
39 subjects (15 men/24 women) were randomly allocated to a CR diet [20–25% energy from carbohydrate (CHO)] for 12 wk (CRD group) or a combination treatment consisting of CRD for 6 wk followed by the American Heart Association diet (50–55% CHO, AHA group) for an additional 6 wk. All subjects reduced body weight, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides (P < 0.01). At baseline all subjects had low concentrations of medium VLDL and total HDL particles associated with the very low plasma triglycerides and HDL cholesterol in this population. After 12 wk, the large VLDL subfraction was decreased over time for subjects in the CRD group (P < 0.01) while these changes were not observed in those subjects who changed to the AHA diet. The number of medium and small LDL particles decreased for all subjects rendering a less atherogenic lipoprotein profile. In agreement with these results, a significant decrease in apolipoprotein (apo) B was observed (P < 0.01). The medium HDL subfraction and apo A-II, which can be considered pro-atherogenic, were also decreased over time in the CRD group only.
These results suggest that weight loss favorably affects lipoprotein metabolism and that the Carbohydrate restricted diet had a better effect on atherogenic VLDL and HDL than the low fat diet recommended by AHA.
Keywords: Lipoprotein subfractions; Apolipoproteins; Carbohydrate restriction; Metabolic syndrome; United Arab Emirates