"Hyperinsulinemia causes activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis in humans
B Fruehwald-Schultes, W Kern, J Born, H L Fehm and A Peters
Departments of Internal Medicine I and Clinical Neuroendocrinology, University of Luebeck, Luebeck, Germany
Correspondence to: B Fruehwald-Schultes, Medical University Luebeck, Department of Internal Medicine I, Ratzeburger Allee 160, D-23538 Luebeck, Germany. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
OBJECTIVE: Hyperactivity of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is frequently found in hyperinsulinemic subjects, such as patients with diabetes or abdominal obesity. Here, the question has been posed as to whether hyperinsulinemia increases HPA secretory activity."
CONCLUSION: Data indicate that hyperinsulinemia acutely increases HPA secretory activity in healthy men. This finding appears to be relevant to the pathogenesis of many clinical abnormalities associated which diabetes and abdominal adiposity, often referred to as the metabolic syndrome.
Also see the following about how the HPA access affects affect...
Hypothalamus-Pituitary Adrenal (HPA) Axis
Ned Kalin, MD, Department of Psychiatry, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, in the same symposium, reviewed the literature suggesting that exposure to stress can lead to the development of psychopathology as well as other medical disorders.[6-8] He emphasized the role that cortisol, the major stress hormone released with activation of the hypothalamus-pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis, may play in the development of a variety of medical illnesses, from diabetes to depression. It may also play a role in the memory dysfunction associated with chronic stress. The effect of cortisol on brain function is thought to be mediated through the mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptors.
Dr. Kalin suggested that the overactivity of the HPA axis in depression, which results in damage to the central nervous system, could be treated with agents that antagonize brain glucocorticoid receptors. Corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) is a neuropeptide in the brain that is released by the hypothalamus that not only regulates the stress-induced activation of the HPA axis, but also mediates the behavioral and autonomic changes associated with stress-related illnesses including anxiety, depression, irritable bowel syndrome, and even cardiovascular disease.
They mention cortisol as activating the HPA axis. Cortisol is increased by smoking and coffee. So smoking, carbs and coffee could lead to depression, anxiety, diabetes and heart disease.